Phytochemicals and in silico investigations of Sudanese roselle
Keywords:roselle, polyphenols, anthocyanins, gout, xanthine oxidase
We analysed four different Sudanese roselle samples for their potential as novel xanthine oxidase (XO) inhibitors. Phytochemical screening showed the presence of polyphenols, flavonoids, organic acids, saponins and sterols in all samples. Liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/ MS) was used to identify and characterise five anthocyanins in all samples: cyanidin-3-glucoside (cy-3-glu), delphinidin-3-sambubioside (dp-3-sam), cyanidin-3-rhamnoside (cy-3-rhm), delphinidin-3‑rhamnoside (dp-3-rhm) and pelargonidin-3-glucoside (pg-3-glu). Identification of cy-3-rhm, dp-3-rhm and pg-3-glu confirmed the selectivity and sensitivity of LC-MS as a powerful technique for identifying anthocyanins. In silico studies of the identified anthocyanins were performed to explore their promising inhibitory activity toward XO. Interactions between the ligand and the enzyme were via the H-bond, and hydrophobic (π-alkyl, π-sigma and alkyl) and/or electrostatic (π-cation) bonds. Inhibition of the anthocyanins was compared with that of topiroxostat, a commercial drug for hyperuricaemia. Dp-3-rhm was the most active inhibitor with a binding energy of ca. -10.90 kcal/mol compared to topiroxostat’s binding energy of ca. -8.60 kcal/mol. The good inhibition results obtained from anthocyanins toward XO suggest their application as a drug candidate to treat gout and other diseases related to the activity of XO.
- Sudanese roselle is rich in phytochemicals, particularly polyphenols and anthocyanins. The isolated anthocyanins in this study were explored as novel potential XO inhibitors. Further pharmacological and clinical studies are necessary for the development of new potential anthocyanin drugs to treat gout and other diseases related to XO increased activity such as hypertension.
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