Lake St Lucia, Africa's largest estuarine lake in crisis: Combined effects of mouth closure, low levels and hypersalinity


  • Digby Cyrus University of Zululand
  • Hendrik Jerling University of Zululand
  • Fiona MacKay Oceanographic Research Institute
  • Leon Vivier University of Zululand


drought, estuary, fish, low lake levels, macrobenthic invertebrates, zooplankton


The Lake St Lucia estuarine system is the most important nursery ground for juvenile marine fish and prawns along the KwaZulu-Natal coast. The estuary mouth closed in June 2002 because of drought and remained so for 4 years and 9 months. A study to determine the impacts of extended mouth closure, hypersalinity and low lake levels on the mesozooplankton, macrobenthic invertebrates and fish fauna was initiated in 2004. Zooplankton and benthic invertebrate diversity declined, benthic invertebrate community composition changed and the diversity and abundance of fish decreased between 2004 and 2007. In the case of fish, the declines were related to die-offs in the lake and the failed recruitment of post-larvae and juveniles from the marine environment as a result of the mouth having been closed. Options for management intervention under closed-mouth conditions are limited at this time, particularly in the short term, to breaching the mouth and facilitating the inflow of sea water. In the medium term, as was the historical situation, the reconnection of the Mfolozi system to St Lucia should be viewed as a major priority.


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How to Cite

Cyrus, D., Jerling, H., MacKay, F., & Vivier, L. (2011). Lake St Lucia, Africa’s largest estuarine lake in crisis: Combined effects of mouth closure, low levels and hypersalinity. South African Journal of Science, 107(3/4), 13 pages. Retrieved from



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